A slide presentation on November 5th 2018 on a topical issue. It provides an overview of what the Euro Area would need to face the next economic downturn, whenever it comes…

In October 2018 I delivered the Robert Mundell Annual Lecture at the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The John Hopkins University in Bologna. I addressed the connection between the theory of Optimal Currency Areas and the evolution of the euro area by organising my exposition around three questions: 1) What was the role of the OCA theory in influencing the European monetary union initial design; 2) Does the OCA theory help to explain the reasons for the difficulties encountered by the euro area or are other narratives necessary?; 3) and finally, what advice does the theory provide about initiatives to improve the euro area stability and robustness.

This is my farewell speech at the end of my mandate as the ECB Vice President in May 2018. I addressed the problems with the initial design of Monetary Union, the challenges it is facing and the reforms necessary to improve its efficiency and robustness.

This text from 2015 is different from all others I wrote while at the ECB. It was delivered at the inauguration of the Jewish Memorial created at the ECB new building. The structure on which it was built served during nazi times as a departure station for Jews being taken to extermination camps. The text is a philosophical reflection on evil represented by nazism, and on the history of Europe and the rebirth of its better values embeded in the European Union.

In November 2010 I addressed the challenges for economic governance related to economic growth and macroeconomic imbalances. I concluded referring to the ongoing reform of financial regulation, with some observations on the role of Europe in global governance and what it means to be European at this point in time.